Talbot County Public Schools

Easton, MD 21601
Endorsed: 08/10/94
revised: 05/16/07
REVIEWED: 07/30/10



A. Phase I refers to planning. Effective planning is both long term and short term. It must

systematically deliver the objectives from the Talbot County Curriculum and/or other

approved national or state standards. (See Policy Codes 9.37 and 9.37-AR for

Lesson Planning Requirements.)

B. Learning Objectives

Learning objectives state clearly what students should know and be able to do as a result of instruction. A well-written objective is measurable and determines how the specified learning should be assessed. The objective also provides a means for both the teacher and the learner to gauge the effectiveness of an instructional sequence.

C. Long Term Planning

Long term planning refers to the yearly plan and includes development of or reference to a course syllabus and/or pacing guide, major student projects and other summative

assessments. It establishes the sequencing of objectives, is mindful of scheduled local and State assessments, and considers the school year calendar (particularly extended breaks).

D. Pre-assessment

Information regarding what knowledge and skills students can recall and apply to support

new learning is an essential part of effective teaching. Prerequisite assessment, along with other relevant achievement data, should inform the teacher’s planning, including the need for differentiated instruction.

E. Short Term Planning

Short term planning includes both unit plans and daily lesson plans. A unit plan will contain student performance objectives from the Talbot County Curriculum and/or an approved instructional program guide. The unit frames a coherent sequence of lessons that develop significant concepts and skills. The unit includes one or more summative assessments to measure student mastery of the class/course objectives.


The daily lesson plan provides the detailed guide to classroom instruction targeted to

specific, measurable objectives. It includes steps to assure student readiness, student

engagement, effective teaching strategies, checks for student understanding, and provides for closure. Daily lesson plans identify specific learning materials and media, articulate activities for the differentiated needs of students, and provides for the effective use of instructional time.


Phase II of the Instructional Process refers to the delivery of instruction by the classroom

teacher to his/her students. The structure and components in Phase II are important, and

should be delivered in a very intentional manner. It is designed to facilitate student mastery of the learning objectives and, under optimum conditions, can virtually assure success.

A. Prerequisite Review

A review of prerequisite knowledge and skills is conducted prior to the start of each unit

through formal or informal prerequisite assessment. Such assessment helps inform the

teacher’s plan for differentiated instruction. Some prerequisite objectives may require further teaching.

B. Cue Set

A Cue Set is provided for each unit and lesson. The Cue Set introduces students to the unit or lesson and is designed to engage the learner in the classroom instruction. The learning objectives are stated during the Cue Set and posted for reference throughout the lesson. If wording is changed to “student language” (typically in the primary grades), it is critical that the rigor, context, and needed content vocabulary of the original learning objective are retained.

C. Teaching Strategy

This is the focal point of Phase II. Teaching strategies directly relate to the objectives of the lesson and the needs of the learners. A variety of teaching strategies must be used throughout the unit with an emphasis on rigor and relevance. Learning activities must be closely matched to the objective. Instruction for concept attainment calls for different structures than those designed to teach a skill. Teaching should develop a level of competency that prepares students to perform successfully on the summative assessment.


D. Guided Practice

Guided practice gives students the opportunity to practice their newly learned skills under the supervision of the teacher. It provides formative feedback to the teacher and student to alert both to any need for correction or re-teaching. Guided Practice must be carefully sequenced and appropriately scaffolded to insure student success.

E. Independent Practice

Independent Practice follows successful guided practice. It is important that students have learned the material prior to independent practice. (Material incorrectly practiced interferes with the learning process.) Independent practice provides further formative feedback and may indicate a need for re-teaching and/or extensions. Independent practice is completed by the individual or by small groups of students with little or no assistance from the teacher. It should develop student confidence and competency to successfully demonstrate their learning on subsequent assessment. Independent practice can be assigned as homework.

F. Formative Assessment

Formative assessment is an integral part of the Instructional Process. It can be as informal as questioning or "every pupil respond" strategies, or more formal such as a quiz or constructed response. Guided practice, independent practice, class work, teacher observation, lesson review and closure, and teacher/student conferences, all provide feedback on the student’s progress toward mastery of learning objectives. The objectives, processes and formats used in more formal formative assessment should align with the summative assessment to be used at the end of the unit.

Teachers will use formative data (homework, classwork, quizzes, and assignments) to

validate readiness for the summative. Performance at the 70% level or higher indicates

acceptable learning, readiness for the summative assessment, and possible opportunity for

extension activities. Performance below 70% indicates the need for re-teaching of

objectives not yet mastered.

G. Re-teaching

Re-teaching, such as alternative instruction, tutoring, or additional guided practice, is an

integral part of the Instructional Process. Time is built into each unit for the re-teaching

cycle. The purpose of re-teaching is to provide for the differentiated needs of students.

Students who do not demonstrate acceptable learning (at least 70%) on formative

assessments should be afforded re-teaching prior to the summative assessment.


H. Extensions

Extensions provide students the opportunity to go beyond the core/essential objectives of the unit. Extensions are for students who demonstrate a high level of mastery of the unit or lesson objectives based on pre-assessments and/or formatives. Extensions must be in the same subject area, and should explore related content to a greater depth and complexity than usually taught in the given grade level or course. Extensions are not busy-work.

Extension activities are intended to replace regular classroom work. When assessing

extension work, the teacher will determine the grade based on the student’s work, while accounting for the cognitive and time demands of the extension activity compared to that required by the regular curriculum of classroom peers.

I. Review and Closure

Review and closure are key factors in the promotion of long-term retention and

reinforcement of learning. Closure occurs on a daily basis and refocuses students on the unit objectives and material presented that day. Review is evident at critical points in each lesson and is also provided at the end of each unit, prior to the summative assessment. These elements help students develop skills in self-monitoring and promote student responsibility for learning.


Phase III refers to evaluation. Evaluation measures the level of student mastery of the unit objectives. While it can take a variety of forms, it must be purposefully aligned with curriculum objectives with sufficient sampling of the taught concepts and skills to perm students to demonstrate their learning. Some measures will be used commonly across schools (and/or course sections), such as Benchmarks, Theme Tests, and Final Exams. Scoring tools (such as rubrics) will be utilized appropriately and be specifically taught as part of the instructional process. Evaluation results may indicate that key objective(s) have not been mastered by some students and therefore require additional or alternate opportunities to learn.

A. Summative Assessment

Summative assessment determines the extent of student achievement on the objectives of the instructional unit. In all cases, the teacher determines when to administer the summative as outlined in the pacing guide or syllabus. All students must take summatives. Summative assessments may consist of a paper/pencil test, a report, a paper, a project or a performance oriented activity. Successful performance on the summative assessment marks the end of the Instructional Process for a unit of study.


B. Remediation and Re-testing Grades 3 - 12

Performance below the 70% level on a summative assessment indicates that the objectives of the unit were not successfully learned. Students should have the opportunity to obtain additional assistance in order to reach mastery of core objectives. Students are provide opportunities and encouragement to complete the requirements for re-testing. The teacher provides opportunities for remediation during this time. Remediation is a shared responsibility of learner and teacher. Because remediation focuses on essential objective for a student’s on-going progress, the teacher should encourage continued effort by reluctant learners and solicit parental assistance when needed.

A student who achieves a summative assessment grade through re-testing is not eligible to receive a grade any higher than 79%.

  • For Grades 3-5
  • For Grades 6-12

Remediation efforts must begin soon after the date that the summative results are given to the student. Re-testing must take place no later than end of the next quarter.

Remediation efforts must begin within five (5) school days following the date that the summative results are given to the student. Re-testing should take place no later than the next interim/report card.

C. Evaluation

Evaluation synthesizes the documentation and student performance data gathered to judge the extent of learning. The basis of this judgment is the objectives in the taught curriculum and the criteria established for performance. Evaluation of student learning is

communicated via report cards and/or parent conferences. See Policy Code 9.25 (Student

Progress Reports to Parents).